2023 National AGM & Conference
Marriott on the Falls Hotel Niagara Falls at Night
2023 National Annual General Meeting
Date: Friday, November 17, 2023
Time: 7:00pm - 9:00pm
Where: Marriott on the Falls Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ontario
As a member you will receive your online voting details approximately 7-10 days before the AGM. We will continue to have our meeting in-person at the Marriott on the Falls Hotel. Vote and have your voice heard.
We will have a social after the AGM. Join us in celebrating our organization and the love of sport that we all have.
2023 National Conference
Date: November 17 - 19, 2022
Where: Marriott on the Falls Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ontario
To be announced
Stay Tuned for how to book your spot!
This is a full service conference over 3 days with meals provided depending on the package that you choose.
Please go to the Ontario Chapter website for all the package details and full course schedule.
|1 day package||2 day Package||3 day package|
Early bird end October 15, 2023
Hotel booking and Transportation information is located after the course descriptions
Course Descriptions & Guest Speakers
Athletic Taping - full day or 1/2 day options
Michael Cook - CAT(C), RMT, D.Ac International Doctorate Acupuncture
Michael combines the best aspects of Massage Therapy, Acupuncture and Athletic Therapy in his clinical practice. As an Athletic Therapist Michael has worked for professional and National teams, with years of experience of sideline medical coverage and pre and post game taping.
Michael has a vast knowledge base through his studies, sports field, and clinical experience. He has been the head therapist for the Canadian Men’s Rugby and World Cup (England 2015), U18 Canadian Men's World Trophy (Republic of Georgia), Athletic Therapist for the Montreal Alouettes as the 2006 Grey Cup Finalists, CFL/NBA Training Camp, Canadian National Figure Skating Championships, and many other University and Provincial level competitions and Games. Michael operates several high end clinical practices such Total Health Link, Progressive Sports Medicine, and the Elite Performance Center.
The purpose of this course is to introduce Athletic Taping for common sports injuries to Massage Therapists, Kinesiologists, and Personal Trainers. Athletic taping is a skill that is under-utilized by most Massage Therapists, Kinesiologists, and Personal Trainers, typically reserved for Field of Play Medical Teams, such as Certified Athletic Therapists, Sport Physiotherapists, and Sport Medicine Doctors. Unless you are a Sport Massage Therapist or have been involved in athletics, you may not be aware of the benefits of Athletic Taping. Athletic taping is performed by applying tape to the body on the skin surface to maintain a stable position of joints and muscles during physical activity. Athletic taping is multifaceted, being used for several reasons, injury prevention, injury management, and maintaining proper biomechanics during activity.
Through a combination of lecture and practical sessions, this course will explore athletic taping techniques for the purpose of:
● Stabilizing or restricting the range of motion of an injured joint to allow physical activity with reduced pain
● Compress soft tissue to support the musculotendinous unit
● Support injured structures via athletic taping/wrapping
● The taping techniques covered in the course include regional techniques for the ankle, foot, knee, elbow, wrist, thumb and finger. Procedures for injury prevention, minimizing the chance of further damage when injury occurs and for aiding the healing process are also discussed.
● Course registration includes a taping manual, all supplies, and a certificate of completion. Participants are encouraged to wear athletic gear (i.e. shorts, t-shirt, etc...)
The Connection between the Pelvic Floor and the Oral Diaphragm - 16 hours
Terra Nicholle - M.OMSc, RMT, IAYT - Yoga Therapist - Trauma Informed, Lactation Consultant, Birth Doula
Terra graduated from the Canadian Academy of Osteopathy with a Masters in Osteopathic Science. Since then, Terra has continued to pursue further training in pediatrics, concussion therapy, taping, lactation consultant and pelvic floor courses. She has an extensive background in personal training, Thai massage master trainer and fitness instructing since 1994. She has been teaching yoga teacher training and yoga therapy courses for the trauma sensitive client. She travels to Africa, Cozumel and Roatan to educate physiotherapists and midwives in treating the pregnant/ postpartum and pediatric patient. She loves to share the knowledge that she has gained to empower therapists to create effective treatment plans for their patients.
Understanding the correlation between the pelvic floor and the oral diaphragm can be an invaluable treatment tool in getting the lasting results that our patients are looking for. Approaching back and neck pain with a new perspective. This course will provide understanding of the interconnection of the jaw to the pelvic floor anatomy, dysfunctions and common conditions as well as providing practical knowledge of techniques that Manual Therapists can use in their practice to assist in treatment.
Through a combination of lecture and practical sessions, you will not only learn about these conditions but you will learn hands-on techniques to help reduce symptoms, pain and dysfunction in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction and TMJ disorder.
This course will help with patient populations who are pregnant, post-partum, have physical manifestations of anxiety, chronic low back and hip pain and chronic pelvic conditions.
Trunk and Lower Quadrant Fascial Chains - 16 hours
Anne Hartley - D.O.M.P, BPHE, CAT(C). D.SC.0
Anne Hartley is a prominent Canadian athletic therapist (Hall of Fame, Emeritus), osteopathic manual practitioner, retired teacher of athletic therapy (Professor Emeritus Sheridan College) and author. She is well known for her publications and manual therapy lectures and workshops.
She has lectured and run workshops extensively in both Canada, the United States, United Emirates and Europe. She has been a member of the Canadian medical teams for several Pan Am, Olympic, Paralympic and International games.
Anne still maintains an active clinical practice specializing in athletic therapy, and manual techniques. She is a graduate of the Canadian College of Osteopathy with a diploma in Osteopathic Manual Practice and a diploma in the Science of Osteopathy.
A dynamic hands-on manual course designed for the therapist who wants to learn the fascial chains of the trunk and lower quadrant. The anatomy of the fascial chains and where they run will be studied. Techniques to help mobilize these fascial chains and regain range of motion in the trunk and lower quadrant joints, muscles and connective tissue will be demonstrated and done in partners.
The participant will be able to:
● Learn manual techniques for treatment of the pathology of the trunk and lower quadrant fascial chains
● Assess for the dysfunctional component of the lower quadrant fascial chains
● Advance their knowledge of anatomy of the connective tissue of the lower body
● Practice manual techniques and stretches to regain motion lost by fascial restriction
● Determine different pathologies caused by restrictions in the fascial chains
Cycling Injuries and Bike Fitting - 4 hours
Alex is a triathlon coach and bike fitter at Ziggy’s Cycle in Kitchener, Ontario, where he has been fitting cyclists of all ages and abilities for the last six years. While attending Western University, Alex was quickly attracted to the Western Triathlon Club. Here Alex started in triathlon and progressed to racing as a professional triathlete. While racing against some of the best triathletes, Alex became obsessed with making cyclists faster through changes to their riding position and equipment selection. Now retired from professional racing, Alex aims to make cycling enjoyable for all riders by helping them balance both aerodynamic gains and injury prevention and management.
During this discussion, we will dive into cycling and explore some common issues cyclists experience while riding. Whether it is their first time on a bike or seasoned rider, many cyclists experience the same problem while riding. I will teach you about a ground-up approach. We will start with the cyclist’s feet, work our way up through the saddle, and finally to the hands. These are the contact points between the rider and the bike; these points significantly influence the cyclist’s riding comfort. We will then examine a few case studies with riders I have fit with various complaints regarding injuries or discomforts and the steps I took to get them riding longer, faster and more comfortably. Providing you with an overview of what the bike fitting process entails and tips you can use in your practice to help cyclists enjoy the ride.
Relative Energy Deficient Syndrome (REDS) - 4 hours
Nicole Springle, MAN, RD, ISAK L2, HPC (She/Her)
Nicole Springle is a Registered Dietitian who holds both a Bachelor of Honors Degree and a Masters in Applied Nutrition from the University of Guelph. As a High-Performance Certified practitioner, Nicole has over 10 years of experience providing nutrition support for development and nationally carded Olympic and Paralympic athletes through the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario. She is currently the lead sport nutritionist for Cycling Canada, managing nutrition support across all cycling disciplines, and for Volleyball Canada’s National Beach program.
A recognized leader in high performance sport, Nicole was recently selected to Own the Podium’s (OTP) High Performance Advisory Council as national lead of Sport Nutrition, representing dietitians across the Canadian Olympic and Paralympic Sport Institute Network and National Sport Organizations. Prior to this Nicole chaired OTP’s committee responsible for developing the Women in Sport Science Mentorship program, a national initiative to enhance opportunities for leadership and career development for women in sport science.
Previously, Nicole has held the position of nutrition lead for OTP’s National Sport Science and Medicine Advisory Committee and has also acted as co-chair for the Dietitians of Canada Sport Nutrition Network, representing over 300 dietitians across Canada.
In her free time Nicole stays active running, cycling, and participating in basically any activity that can be done at the beach! She is an avid cook and loves nothing more than an amazing meal, paired with great wine, shared amongst friends.
The syndrome of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) refers to the broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as ‘Female Athlete Triad’. This course will provide a foundational tool-kit for therapists, who can play a key role in the identification and interdisciplinary treatment of this syndrome. Through interactive discussions and case studies participants will gain an understanding of the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, treatment options and their role in the care process as part of an interdisciplinary team. If you work with athletes/individuals at risk of or experiencing RED-S, this course will prepare you with the knowledge and skills to actively contribute to their treatment and recovery.
Pelvic Health - 4 hours
Janet MacKinnon - MSc (PT), MSc (Bio Med), BSc Hon
Janet has a passion for keeping people active at all ages and stages of life. Janet is a graduate of University of Guelph and McMaster University. Having over 13 years of experience in private practice treating both pelvic health and orthopedic physiotherapy concerns. Hi
Janet specializes in Pelvic Health having taken Pelvic Health Physiotherapy levels 1-5 (Female and Male Urinary Incontinence), Pelvic Pain, Pregnancy, and Anorectal Disorders as well as further courses for pregnancy and exercise. Janet has completed courses in acupuncture through McMaster University, as well as many running injury and female athlete courses.
Janet has taught at the University of Guelph, McMaster University and at the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario sharing her passion for physiotherapy and health.
The pelvic floor responds to impact, load and stress all things experienced by an athlete. This discussion will talk about the connections of the pelvic floor to the diaphragm, the pelvis and the surrounding muscles. Learn what the pelvic signs and symptoms of pressure and incontinence can mean for the function of the pelvic floor and the surrounding muscles. With a better understanding of the muscles within the pelvis and their external connections you can help decrease lower back and pelvic pain, improve hip mobility and core strength.
A Sport Massage Therapist' role in concussion-like symptom management." - 8 hours
Conor Collins BHSc. RMT DipSIT
Conor’s Sports Injury Therapy background has earned him a growing reputation in the professional sports industry. Conor has consulted for athletes in the NHL, NCAA and IHHF and he was a therapist at the 2015 Pan AM games in Toronto.
When he’s not at the clinic, Conor’s teaching at Mohawk College in the Massage Therapy program or teaching his course “Understanding the Complexity of Concussion” internationally. Conor has written for a variety of magazine and news outlets, as well as participated as an expert at a number of internationally-recognized conferences.
Therapists can be intimidated when dealing with concussed patients. It’s easy to become flustered when assessing the patient and how to treat their concussion-like symptoms appropriately. At times patients can be provided with misguided and outdated information.
This course equips you with the most current understanding of concussion-like symptoms and how to properly assess & manage your patients. By the end of the day, you will be able to recognize red flags as well as assess and identify when it is time to refer them to another healthcare provider. The course also outlines common headache types suffered by post-concussive populations and how to properly address them. The course will also focus on the influence of the cervical spine and whiplash in concussion presentations and provide tools to help you navigate them.
Anatomy and Biomechanics of Sprinting - 4 hours
Rostam Turner - Assistant Track and Field Coach, Sprints & Hurdles at University of Toronto Varsity Blues
Rostam Turner is an accomplished track and field coach and former international-level decathlete known for his expertise in speed and power-based training. He is currently the full-time coach and director of sprints and hurdles at the University of Toronto.
Turner has more than 10 years of coaching experience, and prior to joining the Varsity Blues, he spent three seasons as an assistant track and field coach at the University of La Verne. During that time, he worked closely with esteemed United States Olympic track and field coach Kevin Reid.
As an athlete, Turner represented Canada on the international stage four times. His most notable achievement was winning the gold medal and setting the decathlon record at the 2016 NACAC U23 Championships, a record that still stands today. Turner is also a two-time national champion in the decathlon and a USPORT champion in the heptathlon.
Turner's educational background is equally impressive. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Kinesiology from the University of Toronto and a Master of Science in Leadership and Management from the University of La Verne. In addition, Turner is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) through the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and a Level 3 NCCP (National Coaching Certification Program) Performance Coach in sprints and hurdles.
His extensive training and experience as a high performance coach has established him as one of the leading experts in Canada's athletic community. With his in-depth knowledge, international competitive background, and network of highly skilled professionals, Turner continues to excel in his field, providing unparalleled expertise in speed and power based training.
The purpose of this course is to provide an introduction to the anatomy and biomechanics of sprinting and their impact on performance and injury.
We will examine the musculoskeletal structure and function relevant to sprinting, including analysis of the major muscle groups involved in acceleration, maximal velocity, and deceleration. Through this analysis, we will identify common mistakes that can hinder performance or increase the risk of injury.
The session will be a mixture of theoretical lectures and practical demonstrations, providing participants with a comprehensive understanding of the biomechanical principles that underpin successful sprinting techniques.
Para-Sport Perspective - 4 hours
Brett Nagata - MSc (PT-UK), CAT(C)
Brett Nagata’s involvement in designing orthotics and prosthetics introduced him to the world of adaptive sports. As he continued his educational pathway of athletic therapy and physiotherapy, he also continued his involvement with adaptive sports. This interest has significantly influenced his career, working with local clubs to national teams across two continents. Although much of his work has been with wheelchair basketball, he has also been involved with other sports such as para-athletics, wheelchair archery and boccia. His involvement in Para-Sport has earned him spots in numerous competitions, including 6 Paralympic Games and 2 Invictus Games. Para-Sport has granted him the opportunities to interact, learn and share with many experts in their fields. Additionally, Brett serves as an international wheelchair basketball classifier with the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF).
In this course you will learn how to interact with para sport athletes and get an understanding of what Para Sport is about. The course will involve the following:
ParaSport 101 – various conditions and sports, eligibility, and classification system of a few sports (Discussion)
Experiencing Disabilities – role play (Discussion/ active interaction)
Bringing It All Together – para-athlete treatment awareness (Active interactive)
Discussion about the different categories for wheelchair basketball which has 8 classifications and boccia with 4 classifications.
1 Day Advanced Sport Massage Course - 8 hours
Sport Event Massage for: Massage Therapy Students, Students from other therapies, and other Healthcare Professionals
This course was developed by Sport Fellows of the Canadian Sport Massage Therapists Association. Their experiences range from treating at National and International sporting events. They also have been a part of Integrated Support Teams (IST) for Provincial, National, and Professional teams. Emphasis is placed on the practical component, supported by current best practices.
Techniques learned in this course can effectively and easily be transferable in both sporting events and your clinical practice. Tested protocols for event massage will be explained so that participants will leave with confidence in implementing them to their athletes and in their regular practice.
A competency in techniques used in sport massage: Compressions, cross-fibre massage, jostling, joint mobilization, effleurage, and petrissage. A competency in the theory and techniques of pre-event, post-event, and inter-event Sport Massage
An effective protocol when covering an athletic event
A quick and concise method of gathering useful information to make the Sport Massage session more efficient
An understanding of the specific indications and contraindications for a variety of Sport Massage circumstances
An understanding of the physiological and psychological effects of Sport Massage
An appreciation on the value of Sport Massage Therapy’s role in the athletic environment
Information based on the efficacy of Sport Massage
This course is not intended for Sport Massage Candidates for Certification.
You need to take the 2 Day course for Certification.
Kristy Wiltshire BA Kin, RMT, CSMTA Sport Fellow Member, CSIO C.A.S.T Member (She/Her)
Kristy a B.A. (Hons) Kinesiology graduate, also obtained her RMT diploma from Okanagan Valley College (Vernon, BC). In addition to her Sport Fellow designation (2009), Kristy is a member of the CSMTA Education Committee and Examination Committee. Kristy is a Past CSMTA Provincial Chapter President.
Kristy currently is in private practice at Burlington Sports and Spine Clinic and owner of her home-based practice Wiltshire Massage Therapy. In 2021, Kristy was selected to be a CSIO Affiliated Support team member (C.A.S.T) with the Canadian Sports Institute Ontario.
Her extensive experience with all levels of athletes includes selection as the alternate massage therapist for Core Medical at the 2022 Winter Olympics as well as Host Medical at the Toronto 2015 Pan Am Games, Paralympics 2010, World Police and Fire Games, and she has served with Canadian Core Medical for the World University Games (FISU, 2011, 2013) and worked with Trinity Western University as their Massage Therapist for Varsity Athletes in Soccer, Basketball, volleyball, swimming and athletics.
Kristy has taught Sports Massage Therapy with the CSMTA for 13 years and has been a clinic supervisor at Kikkawa College. She incorporates Sport Massage techniques taught into daily practice as well as soft tissue release, Myofascial techniques, Trigger point techniques, Active Isolated Stretching and Performance taping.
Suzanne Moroney RMT, CSMTA(SF)
Suzanne is a Registered Massage Therapist, with over 15 years of experience in the industry and has obtained her Sport Fellow designation with the Canadian Sport Massage Therapist Association in 2016. Suzanne is also the sole owner of Coastal Sports and Wellness Inc in Bedford, Nova Scotia.
Clinic owner since 2007: operated private practice directly out of college from 2007-2011; In 2011, expanded individual practice and operated as “Coastal Massage '' adding 4 additional massage therapists to the company. Once this expansion was successful, further expansion occurred in June 2013 to “Coastal Sports & Wellness Inc.” as a multidisciplinary clinic adding Physiotherapy, Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Acupuncture, Dietary, Naturopathic Medicine, Occupational Therapy, Counseling Therapy, Reflexology and Personal Training.
Suzanne has been a member of the IST for Swimming Canada since 2019 where she supports the athletes during traveling events, including the 2022 World Championships for both long course and short course. As well as Athletics Canada’s IST since 2019 supporting the athletes during training camps and competitions. Suzanne has additionally been involved as a member of the Canadian Core Medical Team for the 2022 Commonwealth Games.
She has furthered her skills in the Sport Massage industry by joining the education team teaching the CSMTA Advanced Sport Massage course within the Atlantic Provinces since 2018.
Suzanne uses specific techniques to maximize the treatment and healing time as well as prevention of future injuries with deep tissue massage, trigger point releasing, myofascial release techniques, cupping massage, Graston Technique, deep stretching and muscular strength testing to determine neurological dysfunction.
Retired as a national level gymnast in 2014, at the age of 28. With over 20 years’ experience in the sport of gymnastics; her knowledge for acute, chronic and preventative care has been enhanced by her experience as an elite athlete.
Remo Bucci RMT | | CSMTA Sport Fellow Member
Remo has been a Registered Massage Therapist since 1995, CSMTA (SF) since 2000, CSMTA Certification and Examination Chair since 2009, Instructor for the CSMTA Advanced Sport Massage Course since 2010, and CSMTA Instructor Coordinator since 2018.
He is High-Performance Advisory Council Therapy Lead for Own The Podium. Remo is a member of the Integrated Support Team (IST) for Athletics Canada since 2010 where he supports athletes in their Daily Training Environment (DTE) as well as has supported athletes at: 2020 Summer Paralympics, 2016 Summer Olympic game, 4 Para World Championships, Senior and Junior IAAF World Championships, Pan Am and 2 Parapan Am Games.
Remo is a member of the IST for Swim Canada since 2014 where he supports athletes in their DTE as well as he has supported athletes at the 2022 Commonwealth Games. He will be supporting the team at the upcoming 2023 Pan Am Games. He is also a member of the IST for Cycling Canada (Track Cycling) since 2015 where he supports athletes in their DTE as well as he supported athletes at the 2020 Summer Olympics and UCI 2019 World Track Cycling Championships
Remo works at Canadian Sport Institute Ontario since 2014 as part of the Sport Medicine and Sport Therapy Team as well as Safe Sport Chair.
Remo has taught Massage Therapy for 17 years. He focused his teaching in Treatments, Assessment, Remedial Exercise, and Anatomy. He incorporates what he has taught into his treatment sessions along with Osteopathic techniques, Active Isolated Stretching, IASTM, Cupping, Performance taping, and Thai Massage
This year we have an incredible line up of guest speakers who will be offering their perspective on how sport massage has enhanced their career, the world of ParaSport athletics, a personal experience of REDS as an athlete, and demystifying the sport induced hernia.
Scott Shallow is a Sports Medicine physician practicing in Kingston, Ontario. Scott is currently the team physician for the Belleville Senators of the American Hockey League, the Kingston Frontenacs of the Ontario Hockey League, Queen's Gaels Football, and has experience working with the Toronto Rock, Team Canada Cycling, and Team Canada Lacrosse. The breadth of Scott's practice includes sports related injuries, osteoarthritis, ultrasound guided interventional procedures, and concussion management. He also has a cat named Tobi and a dog named Duke, which he'd be more than happy to discuss at length.
My name is Jacklynn Boyle (miss/she/her) and I am currently a member of the National Track Cycling Sprint Team. I am currently training full-time in hopes to represent and medal for Canada at the Paris 2024 Olympics. I played competitive hockey growing up and varsity volleyball at University, so the last time I had ridden a bicycle was at the age of five and there were four wheels with breaks. I competed at RBC Training Ground in 2019 and was selected based on my power and strength to transfer to Track Cycling and morph my physique to be one of the best in the world and compete internationally as sprint cyclist. So here I am three years later, riding in Velodromes all across the world on two wheels, no breaks, and one gear. I am very grateful to wear the maple leaf on my back daily and I have my sights set on the Paris Olympics next year.
Canadian National Team Member since 2021 / Two-time World Cup Medalist (2021, 2022) / National Champion (2023) / Competed at World Championships (2023)
I have been a para-athlete for 23 years and have competed at the collegiate level in wheelchair basketball where I won 2 national titles. I was a carded development athlete with the Canadian Wheelchair Basketball National Program for close to a decade and in 2014 I began my career as a para hockey player with the Canadian Women’s Para Hockey team.
Outside being an athlete, my working career is still absorbed by the sports world. I am a sports broadcaster on a show called The Neutral Zone that is streamed on all podcast platforms and YouTube. In October I started my position at the Ontario Para Network as the high-performance coordinator with wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis. I work directly with athletes and staff to coordinate training plans, camps, competitions and grow the game at the provincial level, creating a path for athletes to the National Team and competing at the Paralympics.
Go to the Ontario Chapter website to book your spot!
Marriott on the Falls Hotel
Location: 6755 Fallsview Blvd, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada
The 2023 CSMTA National AGM and Education Conference will be held at the Marriott on the Falls Hotel. If you wish to spend more than a day at the conference or plan to join us for the social Saturday night and need a place to stay the night.
The CSMTA has reserved a large block of rooms at the Marriott on the Falls and has secured reduced pricing for our conference guests.
In order to book your room, simply follow this link to their reservation site. You will see an amenity fee of $15.95 on their site, which has been waived for our conference guests.
If you wish to call the Marriott on the Falls to make your reservation, they can be reached at 877-353-2557. To receive the discounted fee, provide the promotional code “CSM”.
Room Rate: $179.00 CAD/Night
Deadline: Book your accommodations by October 20th, 2023
Shuttle Service Provided By Niagara Airbus Airport Transportation
ONLINE BOOKING INSTRUCTIONS
We have set your discount code 744 . You simply need to go to www.niagaraairbus.com - at the beginning of the booking page, you will need to insert this code where you see the Conference/Promo code - and your discount will automatically be calculated as long as the code is entered. I have also attached a brief tutorial / instruction for using the auto confirmation tool and a logo for your reference. We have set up a 20% shuttle discount for Toronto Pearson Airport. We have also provided a 5% discount on all private exclusive services for Toronto Pearson, Billy Bishop and Hamilton Airports, Buffalo and Niagara Falls New York. The Code is valid if booked ONLINE 84 hours or more in advance of pickup for shuttle and 7 days or more in advance for Private Services.
Guests book online and manage their own bookings with this code and may call our reservations line at 905-374-8111 should they have any inquiries, or questions regarding their bookings. They may also email any inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org and provide the code to the reservation staff.
The code is valid for travel from November 10th to November 26th 2023 to allow ample time to travel before and after the event.